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Primer on Sociopolitical and Military Developments in China-Indo China-South China Sea

This compilation of works consists mainly of articles from Military Review, publications authored by the Combat Studies Institute, monographs from students at the Command and General Staff College, and selected works from other sources for which we have permission to reproduce.

The Army University Press invites readers to submit for publishing consideration articles to Military Review or longer works to the Combat Studies Institute on issues related to China-Indo China-South China Sea. Guidelines for submission are on the Army University Press website at http://www.armyupress.army.mil/Publish-With-Us/.

   
 
 

Army U Press Content

Chinese troops on parade 13 September 2018 during the Vostok 2018 military exercise on Tsugol training ground in Eastern Siberia, Russia. The exercise involved Russian, Chinese, and Mongolian service members.

Competing with China for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific

By Gen. Robert B. Brown, U.S. Army
Lt. Col. R. Blake Lackey, U.S. Army
Maj. Brian G. Forester, U.S. Army

The commander of U.S. Army Pacific discusses China and the role of the Army in dealing with Chinese activities in the Pacific theater.

Published in the September-October 2019 Edition of Military Review, p 35

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Chinese armored vehicles pass in review September 2018 at the end of the Vostok 2018 military exercise at the Tsugol training ground in Eastern Siberia, Russia.

Contemporary China

In Conflict, Not Competition

By Timothy L. Faulkner

We must not misunderstand the Chinese approach to warfare, according to this senior intelligence officer. The conflict China is waging with the United States has put it in a positional advantage that, if left unchecked, will allow it to dominate in terms of diplomatic, intelligence, military, and economic power by 2050.

Published in the September-October 2019 Edition of Military Review, p 42

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A Chinese Fox against an American Hedgehog in Cyberspace?

A Chinese Fox against an American Hedgehog in Cyberspace?

By Kimberly Orinx
Tanguy Struye de Swielande, PhD

Two scholars contrast the differences in the use of cyber power between the United States and China.

Published in the September-October 2019 Edition of Military Review, p 58

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Geoeconomics

Identifying Windows of Opportunity within China’s Rise

Problematizing China’s Hundred-Year Strategy toward Great-Power Status

By Axel Dessein

A critique of Michael Pillsbury’s thesis as developed in the book Hundred Year Marathon regarding the assertion that China is conducting a full-scale effort (across all elements of power to include the military) to assert dominance over the United States and Western powers and achieve the status of unipolar hegemonic power of the globe.

Published in the September-October 2019 Edition of Military Review, p 68

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Composite graphic by Arin Burgess, Military Review; graphic elements courtesy of Vecteezy, www.vecteezy.com

Pivot Out of the Pacific

Oil and the Creation of a Chinese Empire in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

By Capt. Philip Murray, U.S. Army

The author argues that in China’s rise to economic and political influence, it is behaving in a manner little different from any other historical example of a great power’s expansion of economic power and influence.

Published in the September-October 2019 Edition of Military Review, p 85

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Philippine Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana (left), Chinese Ambassador to the Philippines Zhao Jianhua, and Philippine Armed Forces Chief Gen. Eduardo Ano (right) inspect Chinese-made CQ-A5b assault rifles 5 October 2017 during a turnover ceremony at Camp Aguinaldo in Quezon City, Philippines. The weapons and ammunition are part of China’s military donation to the Philippines’ fight against Muslim militants who laid siege to Marawi in southern Philippines. (Photo by Bullit Marquez, Associated Press)

China’s One Belt, One Road Initiative and Its International Arms Sales

An Overlooked Aspect of Connectivity and Cooperation?

By Capt. James Daniel, U.S. Army

The author discusses China’s efforts to rebuild international trade routes, establish a global network of ports, and proceed with other initiatives aimed at making China the centrifugal economic power of the world. He details the linkages between those activities and China’s parallel involvement in the international weapons trade.

Published in the September-October 2019 Edition of Military Review, p 96

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China’s One Belt, One Road The Man Who Removes a Mountain Begins by Carrying Away Small Stones” China Badge

Addressing Chinese Exploitation of U.S. Education Systems

By Amanda Goyeneche Theus
Master Sgt. Robert Theus, U.S. Army

Advancements spawned in U.S. academia are targeted by the Chinese, who see their procurement by any means as a shortcut to catching up with U.S. technology. The authors recommend U.S. academic institutions apply lessons learned by the military to safeguard intellectual property.

Publishedin Military Review Online Exclusive, August 2019

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Geoeconomics

Geoeconomics

Col. John F. Troxell, U.S. Army, Retired

The author offers a detailed discourse on the importance of geoeconomics, specifically as it applies to competition between China and the United States, based on a review of War by Other Means: Geoeconomics and Statecraft by Robert D. Blackwill and Jennifer M. Harris

Published in the January-February 2018 Edition of Military Review, p 4.

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Compelling Reasons for the Expansion of Chinese Military Forces

Compelling Reasons for the Expansion of Chinese Military Forces

Lt. Cmdr. Cindy Hurst, U.S. Navy, Retired

The changing international arena is forcing China to rethink its strategies. The author discusses why that country sees its increasing use of its military overseas as a necessity to protect its citizens and business interests.

Published in the Nov-Dec 2017 Edition of Military Review, p 28.

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Secretary of Defense Ash Carter (left) and Philippine Secretary of National Defense Voltaire Gazmin shake hand

The Danger of Delusions—and How to Prevent Them from Causing Conflict

Developments in the Hemisphere

Col. Michael J. Forsyth, U.S. Army

The author compares inaccurate perceptions of modern Chinese leaders to those of pre-World War I German leaders who thought their neighbors were trying to contain them. The delusions of German leaders led to war. U.S. policy toward China should demonstrate that the United States is not trying to contain China in order to avoid conflict.

Published in the July-August 2016 Edition of Military Review, p 95.

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China's Electronic Strategies

China's Electronic Strategies

Lt. Col. Timothy L. Thomas, U.S. Army, Retired

The Chinese believe that superior strategies can help overcome technological deficiencies. A comparable equivalent to this theoretical development in military art would be a Russian virtual operational maneuver group of electron forces, or a US air-land electron battle group.

Published in the May-June 2001 Edition of Military Review, p 47.

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Military Developments in the South China Sea Basin

Military Developments

in the South China Sea Basin

Colonel John B. Haseman, US Army

In this strategically important area, during a time of continued tensions, the countries of the region have mken advantage of relative stability and economic prosperity and development to improve the professional character of their own armed forces.

Published in the February 1993 Edition of Military Review, p 55.

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China’s “Total Strategy” A Soviet Critique

China’s “Total Strategy” A Soviet Critique

From The Reporter - Raymond L. Garthoff

This article was reprinted from the original, publiehed in THE REPORTER,19 May 1966, under the title, “A Soviet Critique of China’e ‘Total Strategy.’” Copyrighted © 1966 by The Reporter Magazine Company.

Published in the November 1966 Edition of Military Review, p 12.

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The Overseas Chinese Southeast Asia

The Overseas Chinese

Southeast Asia

By Niu Sien-Chong

Their political outlook will remain a key factor in the future development of Southeast Asia. Under proper handling, the problem presented by their presence can be solved smoothly and without great difficulty.

Published in the August 1965 Edition of Military Review, p 29.

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Red China’s Latin-American Policy

Red China’s Latin-American Policy

By Joseph J. Lee

The Cuban revolution was a great boon to Peking since—whatever its true relation with Chinese Communist tactics—it could be used to advance the general Maoist formula for Latin America and inaugurate the revolutionary era.

Published in the May 1965 Edition of Military Review, p 47.

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Red China's Economic War Potential

Red China's Economic War Potential

By Major Edgar O'Ballance, Territorial Army, Great Britain

This article was digested from the original, published in the Journal of the United Service Institution of India. April-June 1961, under the title, “The Economic War Potential of the Peoples’ Republic of China” All Rights Reserved by the Journal of the United Service Institution of India.

Published in the September 1962 Edition of Military Review, p 50.

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Additional Resources

Wikimedia Commons/United States Air Force // whitehouse.gov // Wikimedia Commons/Howard61313

Modernizing the Military: China’s Path to Hegemony?

By Alexia Frangopoulos

China’s cyber policy has become partly visible to foreign nations through observation, tracking, and inference. The policy appears to have three vectors... These three aspects—peace activist, espionage activist, and attack planner—dominate China’s cyber policy. Some are always hidden from view while others are demonstrated daily.

Published Semptember 22, 2019 by Harvard Political Review.


Three Faces of the Cyber Dragon: Cyber Peace Activist, Spook, Attacker

Three Faces of the Cyber Dragon:

Cyber Peace Activist, Spook, Attacker

By Timothy L. Thomas

China’s cyber policy has become partly visible to foreign nations through observation, tracking, and inference. The policy appears to have three vectors... These three aspects—peace activist, espionage activist, and attack planner—dominate China’s cyber policy. Some are always hidden from view while others are demonstrated daily.

Published in 2012 by Foreign Military Studies Office (FMSO), Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

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The Dragon's Quantum Leap: Transforming from a Mechanized to an Informatized Force

The Dragon's Quantum Leap:

Transforming from a Mechanized to an Informatized Force

By Timothy L. Thomas

Chinese observations of warfare in the information age have resulted in a widespread transformation and metamorphosis of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) from a mechanized to an informatized force. This transformation has affected nearly every aspect of China’s military from strategy to logistics to educational development. The Dragon’s Quantum Leap intends to peel back the transformation process and uncover the impact of new modes of thought on several key segments of military development (culture, stratagems, crisis management, deception, and reconnaissance among other elements) that digital-age thought is affecting.

Published in 2009 by Foreign Military Studies Office (FMSO), Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

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Decoding the Virtual Dragon: Critical Evolutions in the Science and Philosophy of China's Information Operations and Military Strategy (Timothy L. Thomas)

Decoding the Virtual Dragon:

Critical Evolutions in the Science and Philosophy of China's Information Operations and Military Strategy

By Timothy L. Thomas

This book expands upon Dragon Bytes, the author’s earlier work on Chinese information warfare (IW) activities from 1999-2003. Decoding the Virtual Dragon explains how Chinese IW concepts since 2003 fit into the strategic outlook, practices, and activities of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The book offers IW explanations directly from the pens of Chinese experts.

Published in 2007 by Foreign Military Studies Office (FMSO), Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

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Cyber Silhouettes: Shadows Over Information Operations (Timothy L. Thomas)

Cyber Silhouettes:

Critical Evolutions in the Science and Philosophy of China's Information Operations and Military Strategy

By Timothy L. Thomas

This book explores the impact of the Cyber Age on military thinking and operations worldwide. Four issues are examined: the contrast between the concept of “cyber operations” used by civilians, including criminals and terrorists, and the concept of “information operations” used by armed forces; the differences in information operations (IO) theory among the US, Russian, and Chinese militaries; the manner in which militaries use information operations in peace and in war; and the impact of cyber and information processes on the mind, the military machine, and their interface.

Published in 2005 by Foreign Military Studies Office (FMSO), Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

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