English 2009 Archive

January-February 2009

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Systemic Operational Design: Learning and Adapting in Complex Missions

Brigadier General Huba Wass de Czege, U.S. Army, Retired

Complexity on the modern battlefield demands a new professional culture that embraces collaborative adaptation in operational art.

13 The Truth is Out There: Responding to Insurgent Disinformation and Deception Operations

Cori E. Dauber

Being first and rigorous with the truth has become the new necessary combat skill of the information age.

25 Sentinels of Afghan Democracy: The Afghan National Army

Samuel Chan

Developing Afghanistan’s army will take persistence, courage, and understanding.

41 Thickening the Lines: Sons of Iraq, a Combat Multiplier

Lieutenant Colonel John S. Kolasheski, U.S. Army

Major Andrew W. Koloski, U.S. Army

Indigenous militias composed of concerned citizens have become an essential component of counterinsurgency in Iraq.

54 Oil, Corruption, and Threats to Our National Interest: Will We Learn from Iraq?

Luis Carlos Montalván

Oil production feeds corruption worldwide and creates strategic threats to U.S. interests.

67 Reconstruction and Post-Civil War Reconciliation

Major John J. McDermott, U.S. Army

Americans involved in nation building and stability operations abroad need not look far from home for lessons.

77 The Making of a Leader: Dwight D. Eisenhower

Colonel Robert C. Carroll, U.S. Army, Retired

Greatness and high office presented no ready-made path to the president most remembered as a general.

Contest Winners


86 Ethical Challenges in Stability Operations

Sergeant Jared Tracy, U.S. Army

An occupying army’s obligations lay naked to the world in the information age. Soldiers should be prepared properly for their moral responsibilities.


95 Reassessing Army Leadership in the 21st Century

Major Jason M. Pape, U.S. Army

Rank and legal authority can simulate leadership, but a new age needs a new understanding of following and leading.

2nd Place 2008 IO CONTEST

103 Information Operations 2nd Place: The Future of Information Operations

Major Walter E. Richter, U.S. Army

Information warfare operates off a defunct paradigm sorely in need of revision.


114 Current U.S. Policy of Provoking Russia is Fundamentally Flawed

Major John M. Qualls, U.S. Army, Retired

With so much at stake, Americans might do well to consider Russia’s perspective.


Contemporary readings for the professional


129 Cover 3


March-April 2009

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Counterinsurgency Lessons from Iraq

Bing West

A noted author summarizes the lessons from Iraq and draws some surprising conclusions.

13 Unifying Physical and Psychological Impact During Operations

Brigadier General Huba Wass de Czege, U.S. Army, Retired

America’s love affair with technology and raw power eroded appreciation for the psychological dimension of war.

23 Narrowing the Gap: DOD and Stability Operations

Colonel David W. Shin, U.S. Army

Performing all stability lines of operations as a “core mission” is impossible for the U.S. military; it does not have the resources. DOD must prioritize its strengths—providing civil security and control.

33 Tal Afar and Ar Ramadi: Grass Roots Reconstruction

Captain Chad M. Pillai, U.S. Army

Because no clear linkage exists between Army units’ short-term goals and broader interagency goals, tactics meant to foster local governance and economic development have produced mixed long-term results.

40 Not My Job: Contracting and Professionalism in the U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel William C. Latham Jr., U.S. Army, Retired

Imagined efficiencies of contracting may cause the U.S. military to lose its jurisdiction over traditional roles.

50 From Peddlers to Sheiks: A Contracting Case study in Southern Baghdad

Lisa A. Verdon

Coalition contracting for public projects in Iraq suggests that reconciliation in Iraq comes at the discretion of the sheik.

57 All Our Eggs in a Broken Basket: How the Human Terrain System is Undermining Sustainable Military Cultural Competence

Major Ben Connable, U.S. Marine Corps

The military should expand its organic, sustainable cultural expertise rather than waste resources on external academics and the appendage called the “Human Terrain System.”

65 Complex Operations in Africa: Operational Culture Training in the French Military

Colonel Henri Boré, French Army, Retired

An expert from the French Army relates how cultural expertise was a critical combat skill that led to success for French counterinsurgents of the recent past.

72 Testing Galula in Ameriyah: the People are the Key

Lieutenant Colonel Dale Kuehl, U.S. Army

David Galula claims that popular support for the counterinsurgent requires an active minority working on its behalf. Ameriyah showed him to be correct.

81 A View from inside the Surge

Lieutenant Colonel James R. Crider, U.S. Army

The “surge” worked, and David Galula’s 40-year old treatise proved its worth in the process. His works should be required reading for American military professionals.

89 Amnesty, Reintegration, and Reconciliation in South Africa

Major Timothy M. Bairstow, U.S. Marine Corps

South Africa successfully employed the principles of amnesty, reintegration, and reconciliation (AR2).

96 Educating by Design: Preparing Leaders for a Complex World

Colonel Stefan J. Banach, U.S. Army

The School for Advanced Military Studies is meeting a recognized need for new conceptual tools to assist commanders in the operational planning process.

105 The Art of Design: A Design Methodology

Colonel Stefan J. Banach, U.S. Army

Alex Ryan, Ph.D.

Two experts provide a brief overview of adaptive learning to develop comprehensive plans for complex missions.

2nd Place 2008 DePuy Writing Contest

116 Learning from Moderate Governments’ Approaches to Islamist Extremism

Major Eric A. Claessen Jr., Belgium Armed Forces

One can learn much from states that controlled extremists for decades.


126 The Future Combat System Program

Major Luis Alvarado, U.S. Army

The Future Combat System will be the Army's best connection to America's future war machine.




137 2009 General William E. DePuy Combined Arms Center Writing Competition

“Leader Development from Initial Entry Training to the Battlefield”

138 Center for Army Lessons Learned Advertisement (CALL)

This advertisement is only published here electronically and is not available in hard copy.

May-June 2009

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Learning to Leverage New Media: The Israeli Defense Forces in Recent Conflicts

Lieutenant General William B. Caldwell IV, U.S. Army

Mr. Dennis M. Murphy

Mr. Anton Menning

The Army must learn to embrace lessons from the explosion of information availability and the latent power of the new media. The Israeli Defense Forces recent experience presents several instructive lessons.

11 Continuing Progress During the “Year of the NCO”

Command Sergeant Major James W. Redmore, U.S. Army

The level of personal and professional maturity of our noncommissioned officer corps is nothing short of remarkable. We have come a long way in the last seven years during the War on Terrorism.

17 The Inclination for War Crimes

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Rielly, U.S. Army, Retired

An Army inquiry into the My Lai massacre 36 years ago provides today’s leaders with ways to determine if units are tempted to commit war crimes.

24 The Embedded Morality in FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency

Lieutenant Colonel Celestino Perez, Jr., U.S. Army, Ph.D.

Army doctrine tells us to respect the other’s dignity and, hence, the other’s life.

33 “Awakening” Beyond Iraq: Time to Engage Radical Islamists as Stakeholders

Colonel David W. Shin, U.S. Army

Countering threats from terrorists should be dealt with through international law enforcement and diplomacy, not “preemptive” war.

40 Detention Operations, Behavior Modification, and Counterinsurgency

Colonel James B. Brown, U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Erik W. Goepner, U.S. Air Force

Captain James M. Clark, U.S. Air Force

Camp Bucca, Iraq, has a proactive counterinsurgency strategy to identify detainees who no longer pose a threat, educate and train them, and return them to their hometowns to marginalize extremists.

48 Direct Support HUMINT in Operation Iraqi Freedom

Lieutenant Colonel Charles W. “Bill” Innocenti, U.S. Army, Retired

Lieutenant Colonel Ted L. Martens, U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Daniel E. Soller, U.S. Army

To remain operationally agile in the counterinsurgency environment, the HUMINT community must shed some of its old ways of doing business.

57 Keeping Friends and Gaining Allies: The Indivisible Challenge of Military Public Relations

Brigadier General Huba Wass de Czege, U.S. Army, Retired

Maintaining and building positive relations with the public must become an integral part of U.S. military operations. Involved populations will increasingly be the arbiters of operational success or failure.

67 Popular Support as the Objective in Counterinsurgency: What Are We Really After?

Major Lane V. Packwood, Idaho Army National Guard

After filling enough government and security force positions to defeat the insurgents, the counterinsurgent must influence public opinion in favor of the government by finding key individuals in the population’s gray networks and securing their support.

78 Iran and Venezuela: The "Axis of Annoyance"

Commander Kavon "Hak" Hakimzadeh, U.S. Navy

Iran and Venezuela are a cause for concern for U.S. security policy makers. They have indeed earned the moniker “the axis of annoyance.”

85 It Ain’t Over Till It’s Over: What to Do When Combat Ends

Lieutenant Colonel E. Paul Flowers, U.S. Army

Preserving the peace to secure enduring success requires implementing post-conflict reconstruction.

89 Arming the Force: Future Class V Sustainment

Colonel Alan D. Braithwaite, U.S. Army Reserve

A new strategy focused on “now and into the future” helps logisticians support Joint warfighter readiness with modernized firearms and weapons systems.


3rd Place 2008 DePuy Writing Contest

97 Counterinsurgency Operations in Baghdad: The Actions of 1-4 Cavalry in the East Rashid Security District

Major Thomas J. Sills, North Carolina Army National Guard

By adhering to the COIN principles of “clear-hold-build” and treating Iraqis with dignity, 1-4 Cavalry brought security to a former Al-Qaeda-dominated area in Iraq.

3rd Place MacArthur Contest

106 The Influential Leader

Major Enrique Silvela, Spanish Army

Today’s military professionals must understand how to influence without authority and how to achieve results within the constraints of a cooperative environment.


115 Disunity of Command: The Decisive Element!

Lieutenant Colonel Carl Grunow, U.S. Army, Retired

Unity of Command, once thought an unassailable imperative, can inhibit success in stability operations because legitimacy trumps efficiency.




129 ANNOUNCING the 2009 General William E. DePuy Combined Arms Center Writing Competition - “Leader Development from Initial Entry Training to the Battlefield”

While commander of the U.S. Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) from 1973 to 1975, General William E. DePuy established the first Army-wide standards for NCO individual and collective training and education. In recognition of the Year of the NCO, the 2009 General William E. DePuy writing competition will focus on non-commissioned officer leader development. Submissions should be original, well-researched essays 3,500–5,000 words long.

July-August 2009

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Tactical Leader Lessons Learned in Afghanistan: Operation Enduring Freedom VIII

Colonel William B. Ostlund, U.S. Army

During its 15 months in Afghanistan, the 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, spent 90 percent of its time training the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), connecting the population to its government, and improving infrastructure.

10 Exploiting Insurgent Violence in Afghanistan

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Brouns, U.S. Army

We need to energize and empower ordinary Afghans to help extinguish the fire in Afghanistan.

21 Adult Education in Afghanistan: The Key to Political and Economic Transformation

Captain Chad M. Pillai, U.S. Army

Provincial reconstruction teams and tactical military units can devise affordable programs that can significantly reduce the illiteracy rate in Afghanistan.

26 Rethinking IED Strategies: From Iraq to Afghanistan

Commander John Moulton, U.S. Navy

If they view IEDs as murder weapons left at the scene of a crime rather than landmines placed to inhibit maneuver, coalition forces will reap intelligence on IED networks through forensic analysis.

34 Afghanistan's Nangarhar Inc: A Model for Interagency Success

Major David K. Spencer, U.S. Army

To be successful in the War on Terrorism, we must duplicate the level of U.S. interagency cooperation that created the Nangarhar Inc brand in Afghanistan.

41 The Israeli Defense Forces Response to the 2006 War with Hezbollah

Matt M. Matthews

The Israeli Defense Force has proved adept at indentifying and analyzing its mistakes and miscalculations. One need look no further than the 2008 Gaza conflict to affirm its success in this endeavor.

52 Detainee Healthcare as Part of Information Operations

Lieutenant Colonel Beverly D. Patton, U.S. Army

The dissemination of positive messages about the medical care of detainees in Iraq can further U.S. political goals.

59 Understanding Innovation

Colonel Thomas M. Williams, U.S. Army Reserve

In contemporary usage, the word “innovation” is now just a common buzzword used to sell everything from software to blenders. Understanding what it means for a bureaucratic institution like the Army will help achieve it.

68 Future Strategic Environment in an Era of Persistent Conflict

Major Paul S. Oh, U.S. Army

The challenges of the next 20 years are immense and diverse. The U.S. military must be flexible and multi-talented.

80 How to End the Genocide in Darfur and Why it Won’t Happen

Midshipman Brendon J. Mills, U.S. Naval Academy

The Pentagon is unlikely to spend precious time and resources on genocide prevention in Darfur because the violence there does not pose a threat to U.S. national security.

87 Misguided Intentions: Resisting AFRICOM

Captain Moussa Diop Mboup, Sengalese Army

Michael Mihalka, Ph.D.

Major Douglas Lathrop, U.S. Army, Retired

AFRICOM should renounce its usual bilateral strategy and focus on collaboration with African institutions lest they see our rhetoric of “democracy” as a modern-day version of the “white man’s burden.”

93 Leveraging Liminality in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform

Major Louis P. Melancon, U.S. Army

If the decision to leverage liminality is appropriate in security sector reform, caution should also be part of the plan.


99 The Role of Empathy in Irregular Warfare

Major John Bauer, U.S. Army

A single rule serves as a useful guideline for building legitimacy, “Treat the population as you would want yourself to be treated.”

102 The School of Advanced Military Studies: An Accident of History

Brigadier General Huba Wass de Czege, U.S. Army, Retired

In this, the 25th year since its inception, SAMS needs to recalibrate its focus on operational art.

108 Terrorists: Neither Soldiers nor Criminals

Amitai Etzioni

Conventional armies that adhere to the rules of war when confronting terrorists are disadvantaged and under pressure to circumvent the rules. Conditions suggest work is needed to modify and update the law of land warfare.

119 Field Hospital Support for Civilians in Counterinsurgency Operations

Colonel Albert R. Bryan, U.S. Army Reserve, Retired

Medical support of civilians in an area of operations can be a tool for counterinsurgency. It is time to change the doctrine.

Review Essay

123 Influencing a Soldier, Lessons Learned

Steve McGregor



136 Eight Imperatives for Success in Afghanistan

General Stanley A. McChrystal, U.S. Army

129 Poem: Arithmetic on the Frontier

A great and glorious thing it is...

September-October 2009

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 The Military-Media Relationship: A Dysfunctional Marriage?

Thom Shanker

Major General Mark Hertling, U.S. Army

In the information age, the first casualty of war is often trust—between those who fight the wars and those who report them. A general and a journalist express their ideas about truth, trust, and getting the story straight.

10 Fostering a Culture of Engagement

Lieutenant General William B. Caldwell IV, U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Shawn Stroud, U.S. Army

Mr. Anton Menning

In the contemporary media environment, the Army must move beyond “business as usual” to embrace a culture of engagement. This dynamic mediascape can be potentially chaotic, but it also offers opportunities.

19 Tipping Sacred Cows: Moral Potential Through Operational Art

Lieutenant Colonel Tim Challans, U.S. Army, Retired, Ph.D.

An award-winning author demonstrates that using effects-based operations for planning has little potential to accommodate important moral concerns that have proven to have strategic ramifications in current operations. He asserts that adopting systemic operational design promises a greater understanding of the current operational environment.

29 Design: Extending Military Relevance

Colonel Christof Schaefer, German Army

Design is a group approach to organizational learning and management that will stimulate cultural change in the Army.

40 Revisiting Priorities for the Army’s Future Force

Colonel Jeffrey D. Peterson

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Kewley

Lieutenant Colonel James Merlo

Major Buzz Phillips

Major Ed Werkheiser

Major Jeremy Gwinn

Major Ryan Wylie

A study directed by General Peter W. Chiarelli calls for the Army to put Soldier survivability over rapid deployment capability in future force design.

48 The U.S.-Iraq Security Agreement and the Changing Nature of U.S. Military Operations in Iraq

Lieutenant Colonel Mike Ryan, U.S. Army

Captain Jason Coats, U.S. Army

U.S. forces in Iraq have transitioned from intelligence-driven combat operations to warrant-based operations led by Iraqi security forces.

54 The Interagency Future: Embedded Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Task Force Marne

Sergeant First Class Jesse P. Pruett, U.S. Army Reserve

Embedded provincial reconstruction teams are a uniquely contributing part of the counterinsurgency effort, but a comprehensive and long-term approach to developing these teams must be designed to increase their effectiveness and achieve their full measure of promise.

64 The Battlefield Inside the Wire: Detention Operations Under Major General Douglas Stone

Lieutenant Commander Vasilios Tasikas, U.S. Coast Guard

A commander forbids cruel and unusual punishment of detainees not just as a matter of law, but also as a matter of principle.

72 Afternoon PT: Key for an Army Flextime Battle Rhythm

Captain Mark Van Horn, U.S. Army

Shifting mandatory morning PT to the afternoon will enable the Army to implement flextime and better support families.


80 Year of the NCO: A Division Commander’s Perspective

Major General Mark Hertling, U.S. Army

A former division commander applauds the “Year of the NCO,” and talks frankly about the importance of the officer/NCO relationship.

Winners of the 2009 General William E. DePuy Combined Arms Center Writing Competition

1st Place 

87 Educating the Strategic Corporal—A Paradigm Shift

Kevin D. Stringer, Ph.D.

The Army should add language training, cultural education, and interagency exchange opportunities to the NCO educational portfolio.

2nd Place 

96 Tactical Combat Casualty Care: A Case Study of NCO Technical Professionalism

Lieutenant Colonel Richard Malish, U.S. Army, M.D.

NCO medics possess professional expertise heretofore unseen in the American military.

3rd Place 

102 Developing NCO Leaders for the 21st Century

Master Sergeant John W. Proctor, U.S. Army

The NCO cares for, trains, and directs Soldiers in peace and in war. He is the primary implementer of new doctrine.

4th Place 

110 The Noncommissioned Officer as Moral Exemplar

Major Kenneth R. Williams, U.S. Army

Today’s highly deployable Army needs NCOs who aspire to lead by example. They must demonstrate moral character, commitment, judgment, and empathy to inspire their Soldiers.


118 What Turned the Tide in Anbar?

Colonel Mark F. Cancian, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Retired

Raids by Special Forces capture the imagination of the public, but boots on the ground are more important.

122 Leading our Leaders

Lieutenant Colonel Tim Challans, U.S. Army, Retired, Ph.D.

When policy undermines morality, leadership must come from those ostensibly being led.



133 In Recognition of NCOs from the Services

November-December 2009

Complete Edition

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Table of Contents

2 Refighting the Last War: Afghanistan and the Vietnam Template

Thomas H. Johnson

M. Chris Mason

America lost in Vietnam because of a failure to establish legitimacy and the inability to protect the people from insurgents. The same failures loom now in Afghanistan.

15 Conscription, the Republic, and America’s Future

Adrian R. Lewis, Ph.D.

The United States needs to expand the size of the Army and Marine Corps by reinstituting the draft.

25 Transformation and the Irregular Gap

Major Kenneth J. Burgess, U.S. Army

Modernizing our Army for irregular conflicts in the 21st century will require profound changes in personnel, equipment, and unit structure.

35 Breaking Tactical Fixation: The Division’s Role

Brigadier General Alan Batschelet, U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Mike Runey, U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Gregory Meyer Jr., U.S. Army

In an era of persistent conflict and evolving doctrine, the Army must aggressively address organization, functions, and roles of the division headquarters.

43 MiTT Advisor: A Year with the Best Division in the Iraqi Army

Colonel Timothy Deady, U.S. Army Reserve, Retired

The 8th Iraqi Army Division may well become the first division-size force in Iraq to no longer require U.S. advisors.

57 Russia’s Military Performance in Georgia

Tor Bukkvoll, Ph.D., Norway

Russian operations in Georgia demonstrated that a large force of organized, trained, and equipped troops could defeat a small force partially equipped by the U.S.

63 Revolutionary Management: The Role of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias in the Cuban Economy

Terry L. Maris, Ph.D.

A thorough examination of Cuban history reveals an evolution of the revolution.

69 Competency vs. Character? It Must Be Both!

Lieutenant Colonel Joe Doty, U.S. Army, Ph.D.

Major Walt Sowden, U.S. Army

The Army should abolish stand-alone ethical or character development training and embed it into all its training and education experiences.

77 Developing Creative and Critical Thinkers

Colonel Charles D. Allen, U.S. Army, Retired

Colonel Stephen J. Gerras, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired

Two key elements of strategic thinking are creative and critical thinking. The Army must educate its leaders in these skills. 

84 Empathy: A True Leader Skill

Lieutenant Colonel Harry C. Garner, U.S. Army, Retired

The leader who harnesses the power of empathy fosters better communication, tighter cohesion, stronger discipline, and greater morale.

93 Emotional Intelligence and the Army Leadership Requirements Model

Lieutenant Colonel Gerald F. Sewell, U.S. Army, Retired

If Army leaders study and apply emotional intelligence, they will be more effective and successful in building strong organizations and teams.

99 The Mentorship Dilemma Continues

Major Edward Cox, U.S. Army

The “Army Mentorship Strategy” is detrimental to Army values and does not result in increased effectiveness.

104 Getting Off the Treadmill of Time

Colonel Chris Robertson, U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Sophie Gainey, U.S. Army

The services should seek congressional support to move from a time-based promotion system to implement a system that ties eligibility to competency development.

109 "Below-the-Zone" and Command Selection

Major Vylius M. Leskys, U.S. Army

A former secretariat for Department of the Army Selection Boards asserts that the promotion and command selection board process facilitates the selection of the best officers to meet the Army's future requirements.


112 Army Chaplains: Leading from the Middle

Chaplain (Colonel) F. Eric Wester, U.S. Army

Chaplains work "in the middle" to support an ethical Army.



129 2009 Annual Index

Search for articles by title, author or subject. You will also find the poems "First Snow in Alsace" and "Winter Warfare" as well as the NCO creed.

141 Cover 3

In Flanders Fields