English 2007 Archive

January-February 2007

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Waiting for Godot in Iraq

F.J. Bing West

As the war in Iraq enters a period of uncertainty, a highly regarded former Assistant Secretary of Defense addresses the four biggest challenges facing our military effort.

13 Developing a National Counterinsurgency Capability for the War on Terror

John Hillen, Ph.D.

The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, Dr. Hillen calls for a COIN strategic framework that incorporates all the instruments of national power.

16 Using Occam’s Razor to Connect the Dots: The Ba’ath Party and the Insurgency in Tal Afar

Captain Travis Patriquin, U.S. Army

Long ago, Saddam Hussein positioned loyal Ba’athists in Tal Afar to neutralize political and ethnic enclaves, and they now support the insurgent forces in the city.

27 Commander’s Assessment: South Baghdad

Lieutenant Colonel Ross A. Brown U.S. Army

A former squadron commander discusses his unit’s year in Iraq and lists his 11 commandants for winning the COIN war in South Baghdad.

35 Thailand: Anatomy of a Counterinsurgency Victory

Thomas A. Marks, Ph.D.

For 30 plus years, the Thai government battled a communist insurgency. A noted COIN expert dissects why and how the government finally prevailed.


52 Mounted Vertical Maneuver: A Giant Leap Forward in Maneuver and Sustainment

Brigadier General Robin P. Swan, U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Scott R. McMichael, U.S. Army, Retired

Arguing for Mounted Vertical Maneuver, Swan and McMichael assert that the concept will provide versatile new options that will extend the reach and power of future joint force commanders.

63 Air Mechanization: An Expensive and Fragile Concept

Lieutenant Colonel John Gordon IV, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired

Colonel David E. Johnson, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired

Peter A. Wilson

Arguing against air-mechanization, authors Gordon, Johnson, and Wilson assert that the concept disregards relevant history, depends on questionable assumptions, and would involve massive spending.

Writing Contest Winners

3rd Place COIN Competition

74 Counterinsurgency Intelligence in a “Long War”: The British Experience in Northern Ireland

Brian A. Jackson, Ph.D.

As the British experience in Northern Ireland has shown, the successful counterinsurgent must diverge considerably from “classical intelligence” methods.

4th Place COIN Competition

86 The Paradox of Logistics in Insurgencies and Counterinsurgencies

Lieutenant Colonel Marian E. Vlasak, U.S. Army

Outgunned insurgents have long been adept at turning their superior opponents’ logistical systems into liabilities. Lessons learned from China and Vietnam could help enlighten today’s COIN thinkers.


96 Breaking the Tether of Fuel

Naval Research Advisory Committee Future Fuels Study Panel

More fuel-efficient vehicles and better fuel management can significantly extend the operational reach of Army and Marine Corps units. Here’s what the Marines are doing to get there.

101 Clausewitz’s Schwerpunkt: Mistranslated from German—Misunderstood in English

Milan Vego, Ph.D.

Army leaders should reexamine the center of gravity concept and consider adopting the German Army’s Schwerpunkt as a campaign planning tool.


110 Dealing with the Iraqi Populace: An Arab-American Soldier’s Perspective

Sergeant Mounir Elkhamri, U.S. Army

A Middle East military analyst, combat veteran, and fluent Arabic linguist tells us what problems concern Iraqis the most and how Soldiers should respond.

Classics Revisited



121 Dreamseeds Poem

Major Todd Schmidt

In addition to being a full-time Army officer and part-time poet, Major Todd Schmidt is the founder and president of Operation Dreamseed, a charitable organization dedicated to providing school supplies to Afghan schoolchildren. For additional information, see http://www.operationdreamseed.org/about.cfm.

March-April 2007

Complete Edition

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Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 TRANSCRIPT: General Petraeus on the Way Ahead in Iraq

General David H. Petraeus, U.S. Army

“Hard but not hopeless”: The new commander of Multi-National Forces-Iraq assesses the war and previews the way ahead.

5 Learning about Counterinsurgency

Lieutenant General Sir John Kiszely, British Army

The director of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom offers his thoughts on how best to prepare leaders for the complex challenges of COIN warfare.

12 HUMINT-Centric Operations: Developing Actionable Intelligence in the Urban Counterinsurgency Environment

Colonel Ralph O. Baker, U.S. Army

In a companion piece to an earlier article on information operations, a successful BCT commander describes how he revamped his intelligence approach for COIN.

22 Principles and Priorities in Training for Iraq

Lieutenant Colonel (P) Christopher Hickey, U.S. Army

A former squadron commander shares his insights on the importance of cultivating judgment in subordinate leaders preparing to deploy.

33 How to Negotiate in the Middle East

Lieutenant Colonel William Wunderle, U.S. Army

U.S. military leaders must become more adept at negotiating. Specifically, they must understand how our cultural traits, values, and assumptions differ from those of Middle Eastern countries.

38 The Role of USAID and Development Assistance in Combating Terrorism

Colonel Thomas Baltazar, U.S. Army, Retired

Elisabeth Kvitashvili

The USAID, now recognized as a critical component for fighting the War on Terrorism, is transforming to take on greater responsibilities to shore up unstable countries.

41 A Model Counterinsurgency: Uribe’s Colombia (2002-2006) versus FARC

Thomas A. Marks, Ph.D.

The former pupil has eclipsed its teacher. Under President Uribe and a dynamic cast of military reformers, Colombia has now neutralized its longstanding insurgency.

57 Reflections from a Red Team Leader

Susan Craig

Red team leaders acquire skills and a mindset that can serve us all. Here are some suggestions to help others “think like a red teamer.”

61 The Shi’a Remembrance of Muharram: An Explanation of the Days of Ashura and Arba’een

Major Jean-Marc Pierre, U.S. Army

Captain Edward Hutchinson, Australian Army

Hassan Abdulrazak, Ph.D.

COIN warriors need to understand the culture they are working in: How Husayn’s death at Karbala in 680 CE influences Shi’a Muslim beliefs and actions today.

70 The Next Gunpowder: The Power of BCKS and the Command Net Forum

Colonel Kim L. Summers, U.S. Army, Retired

Michele Costanza, Ph.D.

The Battle Command Knowledge System’s Command Net, an online forum, harnesses the brainpower of a thousand brigade and battalion commanders.

Writing Contest Winners


74 Managing Expectations While Leading Change

Major Everett S.P. Spain, U.S. Army

Managing expectations is a critical task for those overseeing change. Here are 12 practical lessons learned about leading change that can apply to COIN operations.


86 Emotional Intelligence and Army Leadership: Give It to Me Straight!

Major David S. Abrahams, U.S. Army

Leaders who cultivate “emotional intelligence” develop better command climates and more motivated subordinates.


94 Targeting of the American Will and Other Challenges for 4th-Generation Leadership

Major David Harper, U.S. Army

An exploration of some of the profounder implications of 4th-generation warfare for leaders and leader training.


105 U.S. Strategy in Iraq

Brigadier General Mitchell M. Zais, U.S. Army, Retired, Ph.D.

“What we have now is not a real strategy—it’s business as usual.” A highly regarded retired general delivers a withering critique of our strategy so far in Iraq.

109 Producing Victory: A 2007 Postscript for Implementation

Lieutenant Colonel Douglas A. Ollivant, U.S. Army, Ph.D.

Captain Eric D. Chewning, U.S. Army

In a postscript to an earlier article, the authors reassert that a strong Iraqi Government and support from the population are essential to moving forward in Iraq.

111 U.S. Military Advisors—A Need for Guiding Principles

Major Mark M. Weber, U.S. Army

In a postscript to an earlier article, the authors reassert that a strong Iraqi Government and support from the population are essential to moving forward in Iraq.

Classics Revisited



123 Letters to the Editor

125 LTC Bruce P. Crandall U.S. Army, Retired is Awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor

For more information, see http://www.army.mil/-news/2007/02/26/1987-army-aviator-awarded-medal-of-honor/

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty

May-June 2007

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Partnership for the Americas: The Human Rights Initiative

Admiral Jim Stavridis, U. S. Navy

Alexander T. Roney

Leana Bresnahan

USSOUTHCOM is the only combatant command with a separate office charged to monitor and coordinate human rights issues.

9 The Shia Revival

Vali Nasr

The author of The Shia Revival offers MR readers a condensed version of the argument he puts forth in his widely acclaimed book.

14 Fourth Generation Warfare Evolves, Fifth Emerges

Colonel T.X. Hammes, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired

Changes in the political, economic, social, and technical spheres are making it possible for a super-empowered small group to use new technologies to challenge nation- states.

24 Counterinsurgency Diplomacy: Political Advisors at the Operational and Tactical Levels

Dan Green

In the age of the strategic corporal, it is high time for the tactical POLAD.

31 Everything Old is New Again: Task Force Phantom in the Iraq War

Lieutenant Colonel Robert P. Whalen Jr., U.S. Army

Using cold war doctrine, long-range surveillance (LRS) companies are meeting an urgent, enduring need in Iraq.

38 Committing to Afghanistan: The Case for Increasing U.S. Reconstruction and Stabilization Aid

Captain Craig C. Colucci, U.S. Army

The United States should increase R&S aid to Afghanistan immediately, so that Afghanistan does not become a staging ground for terrorist operations.

46 Cows, Korans, and Kalashnikovs: The Multiple Dimensions of Conflict in the Nuba Mountains of Central Sudan

Major Christopher H. Varhola, U.S. Army Reserve, Ph.D.

To succeed at the delicate task of peacekeeping, one must constantly analyze the social, economic, religious, and cultural factors that fed the preceding conflict.

56 Managing Counterinsurgency: Lessons from Malaya

Walter C. Ladwig III

In the Malayan Emergency, the British found that the most important element of their counterinsurgency campaign was a unified plan that included all the elements of national power.

67 Army IO is PSYOP: Influencing More with Less

Colonel Curtis D. Boyd, U.S. Army

The commander-designate of the Army’s only active-duty PSYOP group argues that the information operations construct adds little value to the fight.

76 Understanding the Link between Center of Gravity and Mission Accomplishment

Colonel William G. Pierce, U.S. Army, Retired, Ph.D.

Colonel Robert C. Coon, U.S. Army, Retired

Neutralizing the enemy’s center of gravity is only one step toward mission accomplishment. Planners must also ensure the adversary leader gets the message and is properly influenced.

85 Of Shoes and Sites: Globalization and Insurgency

Captain Christopher M. Ford, U.S. Army, J.D.

It is a given that the globalization of communications technology has changed the way insurgency wars are fought. But which side has benefited most, and how?

92 In Defense of Military Public Affairs Doctrine

Commander J.D. Scanlon, Canadian Armed Forces

Initiatives aimed at breaking down the wall between public affairs and propaganda only hurt the cause of democratic armies and nations.

97 Discouraging Hearts and Minds: Democracies and Insurgencies

Major Erik Claessen, Belgian Armed Forces

A limited military capability that is sustainable because it is too small to attract media attention can be more successful than a large military capability that can be exploited for political gain.


104 The Power Equation: Using Tribal Politics in Counterinsurgency

Major Morgan Mann, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve

To deal effectively with tribes and sheiks, coalition commanders must be willing to use the carrot, the stick, and the negotiating process.

109 Ethics and Operations: Training the Combatant

Centres des Hautes Etudes Militaires

Soldiers engaged in counterinsurgency and other unconventional, problematic operations must have some way to keep their moral compasses straight.

Classics Revisited



125 Farewell Message, Army Chief of Staff, General Peter J. Schoomaker, 35th Chief of Staff of the Army, 9 April 2007

Tomorrow we will stand on the parade field at Fort Myer and the mantle of Army Chief of Staff will pass to General George W. Casey. It has been a tremendous privilege and honor to serve alongside you, the Soldiers, Civilians, and family members, who make the Army the world’s preeminent land force, the ultimate instrument of national resolve.

July-August 2007

Complete Edition

The complete edition as well as all articles are in pdf format. Complete issues may have large file sizes that may take some time to download. Individual articles can be accessed by clicking on the article title below.

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 A Cause for Hope: Economic Revitalization in Iraq

Paul Brinkley, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Business Transformation

An interagency initiative, the Task Force for Business and Stabilization Operations is helping to quell insurgent violence by resuscitating Iraq’s old state-owned industries.

12 Surrounded: Seeing the World from Iran’s Point of View

Houman A. Sadri, Ph.D.

If U.S. policy makers would consider how the world looks through Iran’s eyes, the two nations might be able to avert a potentially catastrophic showdown.

32 The Agile-Leader Mind-Set: Leveraging the Power of Modularity in Iraq

Colonel (P) Robert B. Brown, U.S. Army

A brigade combat team that inculcates an agile-leader mind-set is a powerful force in any fight.

45 Peace in the Posavina, or Deal with Us!

Colonel Gregory Fontenot, U.S. Army, Retired

In 1995-96, the Ready First Combat Team was on uncertain ground as it deployed to Bosnia to enforce the Dayton Accords.

61 Toward Strategic Communication

Brigadier General Mari K. Eder, U.S. Army

Strategic communication masses public information at a critical time and place to accomplish a specific objective.

71 Focusing Training–The Big Five for Leaders

Colonel Jeffrey R. Sanderson, U.S. Army

Captain Scott J. Akerley, U.S. Army

When the 4th Cavalry Brigade trains leaders, it emphasizes the basics: troop-leading procedures, intelligence preparation of the environment, ground assault convoys, fire distribution and control, and counterinsurgency tactics.

79 The Art and Aggravation of Vetting in Post-Conflict Environments

Sean McFate

Creating a professional indigenous security force depends on the competent vetting of candidates for that force.

88 The Maras: A Menace to the Americas

Federico Brevé, former Minister of Defense of Honduras

We must act now against the mara gangs in Central America before they ally with drug traffickers to topple the region’s governments.

96 We the People Are Not the Center of Gravity in an Insurgency

Major Mark P. Krieger Jr., U.S. Army

Military thinkers and planners often identify the people as the center of gravity in an insurgency, but an insurgency’s true strategic center of gravity is its cause.


101 A Synchronized Approach to Population Control

Brigadier General Joseph Anderson, U.S. Army

Colonel Gary Volesky, U.S. Army

Population control measures are an important part of the current plan to stabilize Baghdad.

104 The Bundeswehr’s New Media Challenge

Thomas Rid

As the Bundeswehr’s recent “skull scandal” demonstrates, armed forces all over the world must quickly come to grips with a new, aggressive media environment.

110 The Surge Can Succeed

Major Jarett Broemmel, U.S. Army

Major Terry L. Clark, U.S. Army

Major Shannon Nielsen, U.S. Army

Those who doubt the potential of the current surge in Baghdad should look at our operations in Mosul, Ramadi, and Samarra in 2003-2004.

Classics Revisited



119 Letters

121 2007 General William E. DePuy Special Topics Writing Competition “Consolidating Victory with Stabilization Operations” **Results**

The Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth is pleased to announce the winners of the 2007 General William E. DePuy Writing Competition on the topic of “Stability Operations.” Forty-one manuscripts were received and judged by a distinguished panel of invited experts.

September-October 2007

Complete Edition

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Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Learning From Our Modern Wars: The Imperatives of Preparing for a Dangerous Future

Lieutenant General Peter W. Chiarelli, U.S. Army

Major Stephen M. Smith, U.S. Army

Looking beyond the current wars, a former commander of the 1st Cavalry Division and Multi-National Corps-Iraq calls for significant changes to the way we train and fight.

16 Iraq: Tribal Engagement Lessons Learned

Lieutenant Colonel Michael Eisenstadt, U.S. Army Reserve

As the “Anbar Awakening” suggests, tribal engagement could be a key to success in Iraq. MR presents a useful primer on the subject.

32 Fighting “The Other War”: Counterinsurgency Strategy in Afghanistan, 2003-2005

Lieutenant General David W. Barno, U.S. Army, Retired

The former commander of Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan offers his assessment of operations in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban.

45 Linking Doctrine to Action: A New COIN Center-of-Gravity Analysis

Colonel Peter R. Mansoor, U.S. Army

Major Mark S. Ulrich, U.S. Army

A new tool from the Army/Marine Counterinsurgency (COIN) Center can help bridge the gap between COIN doctrine and real results on the ground.

52 The Man Who Bent Events: “King John” in Indochina

Lieutenant Colonel Michel Goya

Lieutenant Colonel Philippe François, French Marines

Rushed to Hanoi when the French were on the brink of defeat, General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny almost single-handedly turned the tables on Giap and Ho.

62 A Logical Method for Center-of-Gravity Analysis

Colonel Dale C. Eikmeier, U.S. Army

An Army War College professor prescribes a heuristic to demystify the center-of-gravity determination process.

67 Medical Diplomacy in Full-Spectrum Operations

Major Jay B. Baker, U.S. Army

Using medical civil assistance programs to win hearts and minds only undermines our efforts to build the Iraqi Government’s legitimacy.

74 The Economic Instrument of National Power and Military Operations: A Focus on Iraq

LTC David Anderson, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired

The economic arm of U.S. national power has been ineffectively and even counterproductively deployed in recent conflicts.

82 Lessons Learned from the Recent War in Lebanon

Brigadier General Elias Hanna, Lebanese Army, Retired

According to one much-cited commentator, Hezbollah’s stunning performance against Israel last July could be a preview of wars to come.

90 After Fidel: What Future for U.S.-Cuban Relations?

Waltraud Queiser Morales, Ph.D.

How should the U.S. react to Fidel Castro’s pending demise? Dr. Morales argues that it’s time to overcome ideological qualms and special-interest objections.

101 Battling Terrorism under the Law of War

Colonel David A. Wallace, U.S. Army

A USMA law professor explains the legal issues at stake in the War on Terrorism and argues for adherence to the laws of war.

104 Chile and Argentina: From Measures of Trust to Military Integration

Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Arancibia-Clavel, Chilean Army

Cooperation and integration in the areas of security and defense are helping Chile and Argentina overcome centuries of mistrust and hostility.


1st Place Information Operations

109 Muddy Boots IO: The Rise of Soldier Blogs

Major Elizabeth L. Robbins, U.S. Army

Far from being threats to operational security, Soldier blogs, or milblogs, are strategic communications assets.

1st Place MacArthur Award

119 Leadership in Counterinsurgency: A Tale of Two Leaders

Major Michael D. Sullivan, U.S. Army

T.E. Lawrence and Sir Gerald Templer were in many ways complete opposites, except that both leaders knew how to win at counterinsurgency.


124 The Droning of Strategic Communication and Public Diplomacy

Robert D. Deutsch, Ph.D.

People decode the world symbolically and metaphorically, using emotionally based reasoning. Our strategic communication and public diplomacy leaders have yet to realize this.

126 Understanding Airmen: A Primer for Soldiers

Major General Charles J. Dunlap Jr., U.S. Air Force

If you think Airmen are prima donnas “obsessed with ‘things that go fast, make noise, and look shiny,’” think again. We’re all on the same side.

131 Paper and COIN: Exploiting the Enemy’s Documents

Major Vernie Liebl, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired

We are ignoring a valuable source of intelligence by failing to search documents, hard drives, and other exploitable detritus found in the course of operations.

136 Words Are Weapons . . . So Use Them Wisely

Major Michael D. Jason, U.S. Army

The Army’s failure to define partner and partnership, two terms widely used in Iraq, has led to unnecessary operational and tactical confusion.

140 MR Revisited: The Surrender Program

Garry D. Brewer

In this reprint from October 1967, the author describes the amnesty program used in Vietnam to co-opt and repatriate Viet Cong insurgents. Its lessons may be pertinent to Iraq.

Classics Revisited



151 Letters

153 Inshallah - Poem

LTC Prisco Hernandez, CGSC

November-December 2007

Complete Edition

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Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Fighting Identity: Why We Are Losing Our Wars

Michael Vlahos

Our enemies understand that “it is in the living of war’s mythic passage that identity will be truly realized.” We, for our part, blunder blindly on, fitting ourselves to their Manichean narrative.

13 The “Armed Reconciler”: The Military Role in the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration Process

Michael W. Mosser, Ph.D.

Experience and logic suggest general principles of the AR2 process operate in an environment of interdependent dimensions common to all cultures. In any post-conflict society, an “armed reconciler” is likely the key to making those principles succeed.

20 The Law of Occupation and Post–Armed-Conflict Governance: Considerations for Future Conflicts

Colonel David A. Wallace, U.S. Army

According to international law, “regime change” necessarily entails interim responsibility for security and governance in Iraq. Here’s what we need to know now and for future operations involving “the ‘O’ word.”

30 The Preemption of Nuclear Weapons

Tim Bakken

With Iran casting a nuclear shadow over the Middle East and Europe, a USMA law professor makes a case for a new international doctrine that addresses nuclear weapons preemption.

38 Armed Humanitarian Intervention and International Law: A Primer for Military Professionals

Colonel Daniel Rice, U.S. Army Reserve

Major John Dehn, U.S. Army

Practical military considerations play into any decision to use force to initiate humanitarian intervention. Two experts review the moral and legal tradition for military professionals who will have to help in weighing alternatives.

47 The Chinese Military’s Strategic Mind-set

Lieutenant Colonel Timothy L. Thomas, U.S. Army, Retired

Based on readings of recent Chinese military literature, an expert offers an illuminating peek into the rising power’s strategic modus operandi.

56 China’s Pragmatic Rise and U.S. Interests in East Asia

Major Jin H. Pak, U.S. Army

China’s ongoing trade-and-aid charm offensive should be taken for what it is: not a disavowal of force, but a pragmatic ploy to help the nation attain its four strategic objectives.

70 Army Planning Doctrine: Identifying the Problem is the Heart of the Problem

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas G. Clark, U.S. Army, Retired, Ph.D.

The Army has long based its doctrine on the indispensable capacity to solve problems, but neither doctrine nor professional military education curricula offer a problem-structuring methodology.

77 The Future of the Uniformed Army Scientist and Engineer Program

Major John M. Thane, U.S. Army

As technology accelerates, the advantages of employing the best advances innovatively and creatively have not been lost on those developing future Army doctrine. The Army’s “warrior scientists” can help effect that doctrine.

82 The Strategic Plans and Policy Officer in the Modular Division

Major Francis J.H. Park, U.S. Army

Expert in strategic appraisal, strategic and operational planning, interservice and interagency integration, and strategic education, the functional area 59 officer plays a key role in the new modular division headquarters.

87 Brigade Headquarters for National Guard Civil Support Teams: A Homeland Security Imperative

Lieutenant Colonel James D. Campbell, U.S. Army National Guard

There are currently 55 civil-support teams with WMD expertise dispersed across the country. They are in dire need of a better command-and-control structure.


1st Place 2007 DePuy Writing Contest

91 S.W.E.T. and Blood: Essential Services in the Battle between Insurgents and Counterinsurgents

Major Erik A. Claessen, Belgian Armed Forces

Zakat-jihad organizations such as Hamas and Hezbollah are a relatively new phenomena that the West must come to grips with in the war on terrorism.

2nd Place 2007 DePuy Writing Contest

99 Clarity and Culture in Stability Operations

Major Michael B. Siegl, U.S. Army

In the current and likely future operating environments, stability operations will be essential to U.S. success. It is time for the service to take this mission truly to heart.

2nd Place MacArthur Writing Contest

108 Becoming an Adaptive Leader

Major Harold H. Whiffen, U.S. Army

Today’s Army officer must be able to recognize change and respond to it promptly and properly, as this study of a former Army star’s misadventures in Iraq attests.



121 Letters

124 2007 Annual Index

133 LIEUTENANT MICHAEL P. MURPHY United States Navy Awarded the Medal of Honor

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as the leader of a special reconnaissance element with naval special warfare task unit Afghanistan on 27 and 28 June 2005.