English 2008 Archive

January-February 2008

Complete Edition

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Beyond Guns and Steel: Reviving the Nonmilitary Instruments of American Power

Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates

The secretary of defense says the U.S. must develop a cadre of deployable civilians to strengthen the Nation’s “soft” power in today’s national security environment.

10 U.S. Africa Command: A New Strategic Paradigm?

Sean McFate

The tenth and newest unified command, AFRICOM, stands up in October 2008. Civilian-heavy and with a security-development focus on Africa, this hybrid will not look like its brethren.

22 Operation Mountain Lion: CJTF-76 in Afghanistan, Spring 2006

Colonel Michael A. Coss U.S. Army

The “clear-hold-build-engage” strategy used by Combined Joint Task Force-76 during Operation Mountain Lion (April-June 2006) could be a template for future counterinsurgency efforts.

30 Protection of Arts and Antiquities during Wartime: Examining the Past and Preparing for the Future

Major James B. Cogbill U.S. Army

Well before D-Day, America planned to protect European art and cultural treasures. Failure to do the same in Iraq suggests we need a permanent DOD structure to ensure we don’t repeat our mistake.

37 Northern Ireland: A Balanced Approach to Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration

Major John Clark British Army

The political, economic, and security dimensions of societal reconstruction are ineluctably symbiotic. A veteran of the Northern Ireland “troubles” analyzes how that conflict has been brought to the brink of resolution.

50 The Rule of Law for Commanders

Captain Christopher M. Ford U.S. Army

Without rule of law there is no chance for civil society and little likelihood of stabilizing a conflict. Iraq is a case in point.

57 International Law and Slavery

Mark D. Welton J.D.

Human trafficking remains a problem throughout the world—one that often arises in areas of armed conflict and, thus, is of concern to military professionals.

66 Monitoring and Evaluation of Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance Programs

Colonel Eugene V. Bonventre U.S. Air Force

Measures of effectiveness, normally ubiquitous throughout DOD, do not exist for monitoring and evaluating military humanitarian assistance activities. Making efforts to gauge these programs can pay dividends in stability operations.

73 Threat Analysis: Organized Crime and Narco-Terrorism in Northern Mexico

Gordon James Knowles Ph.D.

Below America’s southern border, conditions are ripe for spawning potential mechanisms of terrorism directed at United States citizens. Awareness and cooperation with Mexican authorities are essential for controlling the threat.

Contest Winners

2007 GENERAL DEPUY COMPETITION

85 The New Legs Race: Critical Perspectives on Biometrics in Iraq

Andrew R. Hom

Biometric technology (retinal scans, gait analysis, voice recognition, etc.) is inherently invasive. Using it to map the Iraqi people could alienate those whose hearts and minds we claim to covet.

95 Finding America’s Role in a Collapsed North Korean State

Captain Jonathan Stafford U.S. Army

Instead of fighting every battle in the War on Terrorism ourselves, we should help better positioned allies prepare for possible flashpoints. One such flashpoint could well be North Korea.

2007 MACARTHUR CONTEST

104 On Luck and Leadership

Major David Cummings Jamaica Defence Force

How many times in our careers as professional Soldiers have we heard individual officers described as being lucky? What is this thing called luck?

IO CONTEST

108 Merging Information Operations and Psychological Operations

Lieutenant Colonel Fredric W. Rohm Jr. U.S. Army Retired

Merging the IO functional area and the Psychological Operations branch into one specialty may be cost effective. Combining resources, training, and functions can only help improve our effort in the information war.

INSIGHTS

112 Iraq: The Way Ahead

Mitchell M. Zais Ph.D.

Security in Iraq has clearly improved over the last year, but the Iraqi Government has made little progress on the political end. “Soft-partitioning” seems to be the best solution to the government’s paralysis.

117 Redefining Insurgency

Lieutenant Colonel Chris North U.S. Army Retired

The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are more complex than the word “insurgency” suggests. A new definition may be in order.

119 BOOK REVIEWS

128 LETTERS

129 Cover 3

 

March-April 2008

Complete Edition

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 FM 3-0 Operations—The Army’s Blueprint

General William S. Wallace U.S. Army

TRADOC’s commander introduces the newest version of FM 3-0, Operations, the Army’s guide to operating in the 21st century.

8 Restoring Hope: Economic Revitalization in Iraq Moves Forward

Paul A. Brinkley Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Business Transformation

Mr. Brinkley provides a good news update concerning efforts to modernize Iraq’s economy.

18 Human Terrain Mapping: A Critical First Step to Winning the COIN Fight

Lieutenant Colonel Jack Marr U.S. Army

Major John Cushing U.S. Army

Major Brandon Garner U.S. Army

Captain Richard Thompson U.S. Army

Human terrain mapping offers a systematic method to obtain the information Soldiers need to succeed in counterinsurgency.

25 Combating a Modern Insurgency: Combined Task Force Devil in Afghanistan

Colonel (P) Patrick Donahue U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Michael Fenzel U.S. Army

Two principals describe how Combined Task Force Devil employed a balanced strategy of kinetic, non-kinetic, and political actions to quiet eastern Afghanistan during OIF VI.

41 Anbar Awakens: The Tipping Point

Colonel Sean MacFarland U.S. Army

Major Niel Smith U.S. Army

The “Anbar Awakening”—what some have called the “Gettysburg of Iraq”—resulted from the careful application of multiple lines of operation, among them the deliberate cultivation of local leaders.

53 Polish Military Police Specialized Units

Major General Boguslaw Pacek Polish Army

Poland is taking the lead in developing NATO’s special police units. The concept’s designer rounds out the specifics behind these highly capable modular forces.

58 A Strategic Failure: American Information Control Policy in Occupied Iraq

Dr. Cora Sol Goldstein

U.S. press policy implemented in Iraq after the fall of Baghdad failed miserably. Decision-makers might have looked to occupied Germany circa 1945 for a better plan.

66 The Reflective Military Practitioner: How Military Professionals Think in Action

Colonel Christopher R. Paparone Ph.D. U.S. Army Retired

Colonel George Reed Ph.D. U.S. Army Retired

Understanding the social processes at work in the Army’s construction of professional knowledge can prevent inertia, ossification, and, ultimately, irrelevance.

77 Lessons in Leadership: The Battle of Balaklava, 1854

Dr. Anna Maria Brudenell

Balaklava and its famous charge have become bywords for stubborn heroism, devotion to duty, and steadfastness in the face of overwhelming odds—but also futility, waste, incompetence, and poor communication.

85 Follow the Money: The Army Finance Corps and Iraqi Financial Independence

Lieutenant Colonel Laura Landes U.S. Army

Without a sound currency and an interbank market, any appearance of progress in Iraq may be illusory.

Contest Winners

Honorable Mention: 2007 DEPUY COMPETITION

92 Preparing for Economics in Stability Operations

Lieutenant Colonel David A. Anderson U.S. Marine Corps Retired

Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Wallen U.S. Air Force

During stability operations, economic actions become as important as military actions.

99 Stabilizing Influence: Micro-Financial Services Capability

James E. Shircliffe Jr.

Micro-financial services that offer very small loans and savings accounts to the less affluent should be part of all U.S. stability operations.

106 COIN Forum

In January 2006 BCKS established the COIN Forum to provide an opportunity for military, government, and civilian personnel, as well as organizations, to come together to collaborate and share their professional knowledge on all aspects of counterinsurgency operations.

INSIGHTS

107 Hybrid Wars

Colonel John J. McCuen U.S. Army Retired

To win a hybrid war, the U.S. must succeed on the conventional battlefield and in the “population battlegrounds” at home and abroad.

114 Listen to the Airman

Lieutenant Colonel Gian P. Gentile U.S. Army

An Air War University monograph warns that we have become dogmatic in our single-minded pursuit of a proper COIN strategy. It should be required reading for all Army officers.

115 BOOK REVIEWS

123 Letters

125 Cover 3

 

May-June 2008

Complete Edition

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Table of Contents

2 Addendum: Anbar Awakens

Colonel Sean MacFarland U.S. Army

A major player in the Anbar Awakening recalls how joint-force cooperation led to the turnaround in Ramadi.

4 The Most Important Thing: Legislative Reform of the National Security System

James R. Locher III

Whatever its adequacy in a former era, today’s national security system is an inefficient anachronism. We need sweeping reforms that create a much more agile system.

13 The Story Behind the National Security Act of 1947

Charles A. Stevenson Ph.D.

The National Defense Act of 1947 was meant to reorganize and merge the armed forces, but the fight for reform was an uphill one.

21 Money as a Force Multiplier in COIN

Lieutenant Colonel Leonard J. DeFrancisci U.S. Marine Corps Reserve

During the second battle of Fallujah, civil affairs teams in Marine Regimental Combat Team 1 wielded money to shape the battlespace.

29 Reforming the Madrasah: A Disregarded Dimension in the War on Terrorism

Major Todd Schmidt U.S. Army

Replacing extremist religious indoctrination with useful education in the madrasah system should be an aspect of the total effort to defeat terror.

38 From Enduring Strife to Enduring Peace in the Philippines

Major Gary J. Morea U.S. Army

Islamic separatists in the Mindanao island group are slowly being assimilated back into Philippine society through a process of amnesty, reintegration, and reconciliation.

49 Title 10 Domestic Humanitarian Assistance: New Orleansnd Civilian-Military Relations

Major Michael C. Donahue U.S. Army

The Black Jack Brigade’s efforts in support of Hurricane Katrina relief operations offer insights into the use of Title 10 forces for domestic crisis.

58 The Taliban: An Organizational Analysis

Major Shahid Afsar Pakistan Army

Major Chris Samples U.S. Army

Major Thomas Wood U.S. Army

What makes the Taliban tick? Experts lay out the nuts and bolts of the organization in a rare look at the history and development of the enemy in Afghanistan.

74 The Al-Qaeda Media Machine

Philip Seib, J.D.

Sophisticated information operations are not beyond Al-Qaeda’s capabilities—it readily adapts old-fashioned manipulation techniques to modern-day media technologies.

81 Transition Teams: Adapt and Win

Captain William C. Taylor U.S. Army

Destined for a transition team? A veteran team member suggests recipes for successful integration and effective mentoring.

87 Constructive Engagement: A Proven Method for Conducting Stability and Support Operations

Sergeant Major Martin Rodriguez U.S. Army Retired

Major Andrew Farnsler U.S. Army

John Bott

Two case studies provide ideas about how to effectively integrate stability operations.

92 Will the Army Ever Learn Good Media Relations Techniques? Walter Reed as a Case Study

Colonel James T. Currie Ph.D. U.S. Army Reserve

If you are looking for a near-perfect case study of how not to deal with the press, the Walter Reed Army Medical Center controversy would be a great place to start.

INSIGHTS

100 Through an Arab Cultural Lens

Helen Altman Klein Ph.D.

Gilbert Kuperman

Avoid Western chauvinism and the dangers of a parochial mind-set by glimpsing how others see the world.

106 Islam and Symbolism

First Sergeant António Rodrigues Portuguese Army

Like all cultures, Islamic ones employ an array of iconography. Familiarize yourself with the Muslim world of poetic symbolism to gain a better understanding of the Middle East.

115 BOOK REVIEWS

123 Letters

125 Cover 3

 

July-August 2008

Complete Edition

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Table of Contents

2 Interagency Reform: The Congressional Perspective

Congressman Geoff Davis

Congressman Davis explains why we need to reform the interagency process in regard to national security and what must be considered in future legislation on this pressing issue.

6 Field Manual 3-07, Stability Operations: Upshifting the Engine of Change

Lieutenant General William B. Caldwell IV U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Steven M. Leonard U.S. Army

This FM will institutionalize a whole-of-government approach to combating insurgency and sustaining success in an era of persistent conflict.

14 Darfur and Peacekeeping Operations in Africa

Lieutenant Commander Patrick Paterson U.S. Navy

The crisis in Darfur, which the United States has labeled “genocide” and the United Nations has called “the world’s gravest human rights abuse,” has revealed glaring weaknesses in the African Union’s ability to conduct peacekeeping operations.

24 Salvadoran Reconciliation

Major M. Chris Herrera U.S. Army

Major Michael G. Nelson U.S. Air Force

A brutal 12-year civil war in El Salvador ended in 1992. The conflict killed more than 75,000 mostly innocent civilians and left 8,000 missing. Reconciliation has been difficult to achieve.

31 A Troubled Past: The Army and Security on the Mexican Border, 1915-1917

Thomas A. Bruscino Jr.

The tempestuous historical border relationships between the United States and Mexico have always been complex.

45 Persuasion and Coercion in Counterinsurgency Warfare

Andrew J. Birtle Ph.D.

Much confusion remains over the roles that persuasion and coercion play in rebellions and other internal conflicts. What is the relationship between force and politics?

54 After Iraq: The Politics of Blame and Civilian-Military Relations

George R. Mastroianni Ph.D.

Wilbur J. Scott Ph.D.

Competing post-Iraq narratives may lead to a broadening of sociological divisions between military professionals and the civil society they defend.

61 Legitimacy and Military Operations

Lieutenant Colonel James W. Hammond Canadian Forces

In America’s rush to war, it forgot that legitimacy, whether real or perceived, is paramount. The author argues that to achieve success, the U.S. must conduct all military operations with legitimacy in mind.

73 Twelve Urgent Steps for the Advisor Mission in Afghanistan

Captain Daniel Helmer U.S. Army

Without major and rapid changes to structure and execution, the advisory effort in Afghanistan will fail to arrest the growing insurgencies.

82 Burnout: Staff Exhaustion

Major Stephen H. Bales U.S. Army

Commanders can proactively take initiative to mitigate conditions that cause their staffs to lose their peak effectiveness. Imaginative management can help prevent staff burnout.

87 Reaching Out: Partnering with Iraqi Media

Lieutenant Colonel Frank B. DeCarvalho U.S. Army

Major Spring Kivett U.S. Army

Captain Matthew Lindsey U.S. Army

Using Iraqi news reporters can increase the chances that good news stories will resonate favorably in Iraq. An expert lays out the particulars of an important dimension of the information war.

96 Why the U.S. Should Gender Its Counterterrorism Strategy

Lieutenant Colonel Miemie Winn Byrd Reserve U.S. Army

Major Gretchen Decker Reserve U.S. Army

Gender prejudices and traditional assumptions belie an increasing threat from radicalized women. It is time to consider gender issues in designing counterterrorism strategies.

102 Knowledge Management by the Generating Force

Lieutenant Colonel (P) E.J. Degen U.S. Army

The accelerated operational tempo of the War on Terrorism has forced us to take an honest, in-depth look at how we collect, analyze, debate, codify, write, and disseminate doctrine.

INSIGHTS

111 The Sole Superpower in Decline: The Rise of a Multipolar World

Shri Dilip Hiro

A widely published author asserts that we are witnessing the rise of a multipolar world in which new powers are challenging different aspects of American hegemony.

116 BOOK REVIEWS

124 Military Review Website Advertisement

125 Cover 3

 

September-October 2008

Complete Edition

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Table of Contents

2 Multi-National Force-Iraq Commander’s Counterinsurgency Guidance

General David H. Petraeus U.S. Army

General Petraeus outlines the essential tasks necessary for successful counterinsurgency operations in Iraq.

5 The Baby and the Bathwater: Changing Times or Changing Principles?

Colonel John Mark Mattox U.S. Army

Principles of war have not changed, even if tactics, techniques, and procedures have.

10 Discipline, Punishment, and Counterinsurgency

Scott Andrew Ewing

Vague regulations encourage NCOs to disguise arbitrary punishments as extra training. This ubiquitous practice may be contributing to abuse of civilians during operations.

21 Institutionalizing Adaptation: It’s Time for an Army Advisor Command

Dr. John A. Nagl LTC U.S. Army Retired

Institutionalizing and professionalizing the manning and training of combat advisors is an American strategic necessity.

27 Integrating the Advisory Effort in the Army: A Full Spectrum Solution

Major Michael D. Jason U.S. Army

The author proposes creating a new U.S. Army “Advisor Command” at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, under control of Forces Command in collaboration with Training and Doctrine Command.

33 From Tactical Planning to Operational Design

Major Ketti Davison U.S. Army

“Effects-based operations” may be banished from the joint lexicon, but a coherent operational design remains necessary for effectively understanding the emergent qualities of complex environments.

40 An Innovative Approach to Blast Injury Recovery

Colonel Karl D. Reed U.S. Army

Caring for mild traumatic brain injury is challenging for the military and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Sports medicine’s “best practices” can revolutionize treatment of such injuries for Soldiers.

47 In Uncle Sam’s Backyard: China’s Military Influence in Latin America

Loro Horta

Beijing’s rising economic and political influence in Latin America may pave the way for major Chinese arms sales and expansion of China’s military influence.

56 Waging Counterinsurgency in Algeria: A French Point of View

Lieutenant Colonel Philippe Francois French Marine Infantry

The history of the French-Algerian War contains illuminating lessons that can help shape COIN operations today.

68 Operation BOA: A Counterfactual History of the Battle for Shah-I-Kot

Colonel Robert D. Hyde USAF

Colonel Mark D. Kelly USAF

Colonel William F. Andrews USAF

The authors present a counterfactual version of what might have happened in Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan.

77 Leadership Success Strategies of U.S. Army Women General Officers

Lieutenant Colonel Yvonne Doll U.S. Army Retired

Women general officers reflect on what it took to succeed.

84 Amnesty, Reintegration, and Reconciliation in Rwanda

Major Jeffrey H. Powell U.S. Army

Failure to grant amnesty has mired the reconciliation process in Rwanda after the genocide there in 1994.

91 Winning Battles but Losing Wars: Three Ways Successes in Combat Promote Failures in Peace

Christopher E. Housenick Ph.D.

The American way of war may be an obstacle to the best outcomes in a workable peace.

INSIGHTS

99 A National Security Strategy for the Next Administration

Amitai Etzioni

Professor Etzioni analyzes a recent proposal for post-Bush foreign policy and America’s future strategic posture.

106 Finding the Flow: Shadow Economies, Ethnic Networks, and Counterinsurgency

Captain Robert M. Chamberlain U.S. Army

Does reuniting Iraq’s religious communities represent the best hope for the fledgling democracy, or is it a hopeless quest to turn back the clock?

110 BOOK REVIEWS

118 LETTERS

121 Cover 3

 

November-December 2008

Complete Edition

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 Enable from Overwatch: MNF-Iraq

General Raymond T. Odierno U.S. Army

The MNF-Iraq commander’s operating guidance emphasizes "how we think," "how we operate," and "who we are."

4 The Strategy of Protracted People’s War: Uganda

Yoweri Kaguta Museveni President of the Republic of Uganda

President Museveni presents thoughts and observations on the future of Africa and the moral factor in revolutionary warfare.

14 Rethinking IO: Complex Operations in the Information Age

Brigadier General Huba Wass de Czege U.S. Army Retired

The Army lacks dexterity with war’s moral domain. Today’s highly complex conflicts demand recovering a holistic approach.

27 **IO Contest 2008, 1st Place** Irregular Warfare Information Operations: Understanding the Role of People, Capabilities, and Effects

Lieutenant Colonel Norman E. Emery U.S. Army

Current operating environments require balancing IO efforts against the enemy with those efforts intended to influence populations.

39 Georgia: The War Russia Lost

Stephen J. Blank Ph.D.

The Strategic Studies Institute’s expert on the Soviet bloc and the post-Soviet world examines the ramifications of Russia’s recent posturing.

47 China’s Electronic Long-Range Reconnaissance

Lieutenant Colonel Timothy L. Thomas U.S. Army Retired

China’s ongoing use of “patriotic hackers” may represent electronic reconnaissance for putting cyber-war theory into practice.

55 On Metaphors We are Led By

Colonel Christopher R. Paparone Ph.D. U.S. Army Retired

Caring for mild traumatic brain injury is challenging for the military and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Sports medicine’s “best practices” can revolutionize treatment of such injuries for Soldiers.

65 Sociocultural Expertise and the Military: Beyond the Controversy

Pauline Kusiak Ph.D.

While using academics for military ethnographic analysis may be controversial, it can foster better security.

77 Revisiting Modern Warfare: Counterinsurgency in the Mada’in Qada

Lieutenant Colonel David G. Fivecoat U.S. Army

Captain Aaron T. Schwengler U.S. Army

French Colonel Roger Trinquier’s 1964 book Modern Warfare has relevant lessons for 21st-century counterinsurgency.

88 How Jesse James, the Telegraph, and the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Can Help the Army Win the War on Terrorism

Peter E. Kunkel Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller)

History teaches that a cashless battlefield can translate into less violence and a quicker restoration of stability.

97 Planning Full Spectrum Operations: Implications of FM 3-0 on Planning Doctrine

Major Glenn A. Henke U.S. Army

Phasing military operations has proven to be a defunct heuristic for effectively meshing logical lines of operations in COIN.

102 **MacArthur Contest 2008, 1st Place** Relooking Unit Cohesion: A Sensemaking Approach

Major Geoff van Epps U.S. Army

With the days of Army COHORT units more than two decades past, cohesion has become an afterthought.

INSIGHTS

111 Reconstruction: A Damaging Fantasy?

Amitai Etzioni

If we cannot put our own house in order, is it realistic to think we can do it for another country, especially when that country’s culture is significantly different?

118 BOOK REVIEWS

125 LETTERS

129 Annual Index

136 Cover 3

Interagency Reader - Special Edition

Complete Edition

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 America’s Frontier Wars: Lessons for Asymmetric Conflicts

Congressman Ike Skelton

Congressman Ike Skelton suggests how to overcome the threat of asymmetrical warfare by examining yesteryear’s battles to develop strategies and tactics for tomorrow’s conflicts.

8 Revisiting CORDS: The Need for Unity of Effort to Secure Victory in Iraq

Major Ross Coffey U.S. Army

An innovative solution to unity of effort in Vietnam, CORDS offers a blueprint for realizing the national strategy for victory in Iraq.

19 The Most Important Thing: Legislative Reform of the National Security System

James R. Locher III

Whatever its adequacy in a former era, today’s national security system is an inefficient anachronism. We need sweeping reforms that create a much more agile system.

28 Beyond Guns and Steel: Reviving the Nonmilitary Instruments of American Power

Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates

The secretary of defense says the U.S. must develop a cadre of deployable civilians to strengthen the Nation’s “soft” power in today’s national security environment.

36 Learning From Our Modern Wars: The Imperatives of Preparing for a Dangerous Future

Lieutenant General Peter W. Chiarelli U.S. Army

Major Stephen M. Smith U.S. Army

Looking beyond the current wars, a former commander of the 1st Cavalry Division and Multi-National Corps-Iraq calls for significant changes to the way we train and fight.

50 FM 3-0 Operations—The Army’s Blueprint

General William S. Wallace U.S. Army

TRADOC’s commander introduces the newest version of FM 3-0, Operations, the Army’s guide to operating in the 21st century.

56 Field Manual 3-07, Stability Operations: Upshifting the Engine of Change

Lieutenant General William B. Caldwell IV U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Steven M. Leonard U.S. Army

This FM will institutionalize a whole-of-government approach to combating insurgency and sustaining success in an era of persistent conflict.

64 Restoring Hope: Economic Revitalization in Iraq Moves Forward

Paul A. Brinkley Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Business Transformation

Mr. Brinkley provides a good news update concerning efforts to modernize Iraq’s economy.

74 Combating a Modern Insurgency: Combined Task Force Devil in Afghanistan

Colonel (P) Patrick Donahue U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Michael Fenzel U.S. Army

Two principals describe how Combined Task Force Devil employed a balanced strategy of kinetic, non-kinetic, and political actions to quiet eastern Afghanistan during OIF VI.

90 Committing to Afghanistan: The Case for Increasing U.S. Reconstruction and Stabilization Aid

Captain Craig C. Colucci U.S. Army

The United States should increase R and S aid to Afghanistan immediately, so that Afghanistan does not become a staging ground for terrorist operations.

98 Preparing for Economics in Stability Operations

Lieutenant Colonel David A. Anderson U.S. Marine Corps Retired

Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Wallen U.S. Air Force

During stability operations, economic actions become as important as military actions.

105 The Role of USAID and Development Assistance in Combating Terrorism

Colonel Thomas Baltazar U.S. Army Retired

Elisabeth Kvitashvili

The USAID, now recognized as a critical component for fighting the War on Terrorism, is transforming to take on greater responsibilities to shore up unstable countries.

108 Counterinsurgency Diplomacy: Political Advisors at the Operational and Tactical Levels

Dan Green

In the age of the strategic corporal, it is high time for the tactical POLAD.

115 Control Roaming Dogs: Governance Operations in Future Conflict

Major Troy Thomas U.S. Air Force

Governance operations have been treated as tangential postconflict missions, leaving field commanders ill-prepared for governance tasks and delaying consolidation of political aims.

123 Monitoring and Evaluation of Department of Defense Humanitarian Assistance Programs

Colonel Eugene V. Bonventre U.S. Air Force

Measures of effectiveness, normally ubiquitous throughout DOD, do not exist for monitoring and evaluating military humanitarian assistance activities. Making efforts to gauge these programs can pay dividends in stability operations.

130 Why We Need to Reestablish the USIA

Michael J. Zwiebel

Since 1999, when the USIA was abolished, U.S. public diplomacy efforts have been spotty. Reestablishing the old agency would be one way to fix a glaring problem.

140 The Sole Superpower in Decline: The Rise of a Multipolar World

Shri Dilip Hiro

A widely published author asserts that we are witnessing the rise of a multipolar world in which new powers are challenging different aspects of American hegemony.

145 Cover 3

Counterinsurgency Reader II - Special Edition

Complete Edition

Front Cover

Table of Contents

2 America’s Frontier Wars: Lessons for Asymmetric Conflicts

Congressman Ike Skelton

Congressman Ike Skelton suggests how to overcome the threat of asymmetrical warfare by examining yesteryear’s battles to develop strategies and tactics for tomorrow’s conflicts.

8 Developing a National Counterinsurgency Capability for the War on Terror

John Hillen Ph.D.

The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, Dr. Hillen calls for a COIN strategic framework that incorporates all the instruments of national power.

11 Phase IV Operations: Where Wars are Really Won

Lieutenant Colonel Conrad C. Crane Ph.D. U.S. Army Retired

The United States has rarely accomplished long-term policy goals after any conflict without an extended U.S. military presence to ensure proper results from the peace.

21 Linking Doctrine to Action: A New COIN Center-of-Gravity Analysis

Colonel Peter R. Mansoor U.S. Army

Major Mark S. Ulrich U.S. Army

A new tool from the Army/Marine Counterinsurgency (COIN) Center can help bridge the gap between COIN doctrine and real results on the ground.

28 Using Occam’s Razor to Connect the Dots: The Ba’ath Party and the Insurgency in Tal Afar

Captain Travis Patriquin U.S. Army

Long ago, Saddam Hussein positioned loyal Ba’athists in Tal Afar to neutralize political and ethnic enclaves, and they now support the insurgent forces in the city.

38 Anatomy of a Successful COIN Operation: OEF-Philippines and the Indirect Approach

Colonel Gregory Wilson U.S. Army

Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines offers a template for how to succeed in counterinsurgency.

49 A Model Counterinsurgency: Uribe’s Colombia (2002–2006) versus FARC

Thomas A. Marks Ph.D.

The former pupil has eclipsed its teacher. Under President Uribe and a dynamic cast of military reformers, Colombia has now neutralized its longstanding insurgency.

65 Anbar Awakens: The Tipping Point

Major Niel Smith U.S. Army

Colonel Sean MacFarland U.S. Army

The “Anbar Awakening”—what some have called the “Gettysburg of Iraq”—resulted from the careful application of multiple lines of operation, among them the deliberate cultivation of local leaders.

77 Addendum: Anbar Awakens

Colonel Sean MacFarland U.S. Army

A major player in the Anbar Awakening recalls how joint-force cooperation led to the turnaround in Ramadi.

79 Commander’s Assessment: South Baghdad

Lieutenant Colonel Ross A. Brown U.S. Army

A former squadron commander discusses his unit’s year in Iraq and lists his 11 commandants for winning the COIN war in South Baghdad.

87 Fighting “The Other War”: Counterinsurgency Strategy in Afghanistan, 2003–2005

Lieutenant General David W. Barno U.S. Army Retired

The former commander of Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan offers his assessment of operations in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban.

100 Combating a Modern Insurgency: Combined Task Force Devil in Afghanistan

Colonel (P) Patrick Donahue U.S. Army

Lieutenant Colonel Michael Fenzel U.S. Army

Two principals describe how Combined Task Force Devil employed a balanced strategy of kinetic, non-kinetic, and political actions to quiet eastern Afghanistan during OIF VI.

116 HUMINT-Centric Operations: Developing Actionable Intelligence in the Urban Counterinsurgency Environment

Colonel Ralph O. Baker U.S. Army

In a companion piece to an earlier article on information operations, a successful BCT commander describes how he revamped his intelligence approach for COIN.

126 Human Terrain Mapping: A Critical First Step to Winning the COIN Fight

Lieutenant Colonel Jack Marr U.S. Army

Major John Cushing U.S. Army

Major Brandon Garner U.S. Army

Captain Richard Thompson U.S. Army

Human terrain mapping offers a systematic method to obtain the information Soldiers need to succeed in counterinsurgency.

133 Paper and COIN: Exploiting the Enemy’s Documents

Major Vernie Liebl U.S. Marince Corps Retired

We are ignoring a valuable source of intelligence by failing to search documents, hard drives, and other exploitable detritus found in the course of operations.

138 Everything Old is New Again: Task Force Phantom in the Iraq War

Lieutenant Colonel Robert P. Whalen Jr. U.S. Army

Using cold war doctrine, long-range surveillance (LRS) companies are meeting an urgent, enduring need in Iraq.

145 A Synchronized Approach to Population Control

Brigadier General Joseph Anderson U.S. Army

Colonel Gary Volesky U.S. Army

Population control measures are an important part of the current plan to stabilize Baghdad.

148 The Art and Aggravation of Vetting in Post-Conflict Environments

Sean McFate U.S. Army

Creating a professional indigenous security force depends on the competent vetting of candidates for that force.

157 Iraq: The Social Context of IEDs

Montgomery McFate Ph.D. J.D.

To defeat the insurgents who employ improvised explosive devices, commanders should focus less on the bomb than on the bomb maker.

161 Iraq: Tribal Engagement Lessons Learned

Lieutenant Colonel Michael Eisenstadt U.S. Army Reserve

As the “Anbar Awakening” suggests, tribal engagement could be a key to success in Iraq. MR presents a useful primer on the subject.

177 Money as a Force Multiplier in COIN

Lieutenant Colonel Leonard J. DeFrancisci U.S. Marine Corps Reserve

During the second battle of Fallujah, civil affairs teams in Marine Regimental Combat Team 1 wielded money to shape the battlespace.

185 Stabilizing Influence: Micro-Financial Services Capability

James E. Shircliffe Jr.

Micro-financial services that offer very small loans and savings accounts to the less affluent should be part of all U.S. stability operations.

192 From Enduring Strife to Enduring Peace in the Philippines

Major Gary J. Morea U.S. Army

Islamic separatists in the Mindanao island group are slowly being assimilated back into Philippine society through a process of amnesty, reintegration, and reconciliation.

203 Protection of Arts and Antiquities during Wartime: Examining the Past and Preparing for the Future

Major James B. Cogbill U.S. Army

Well before D-Day, America planned to protect European art and cultural treasures. Failure to do the same in Iraq suggests we need a permanent DOD structure to ensure we don’t repeat our mistake.

210 Multi-National Force-Iraq Commander’s Counterinsurgency Guidance

General David H. Petraeus U.S. Army

General Petraeus talks on the essential tasks necessary for successful COIN.

215 Cover 3